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英语语法:定语从句

撰稿:宋婧仪  审核:张迪  更新时间:2022/6/8 20:44:56  点击数:5269 

定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。


关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。


关系副词有:when, where, why等。


关系代词引导的定语从句


关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。


1)who, whom, that


这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:


Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是想见你的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)


He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)


2)Whose


用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如:


They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。


Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。


3)which, that


它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:


A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)


The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)


关系副词引导的定语从句


关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。


1)when, where, why


关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:


There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。


Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。


Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?


2)that代替关系副词


that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:


His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。


He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。




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